2004 Announcement of Research Positions
for The Frontier Research System for Global Change (FRSGC)

Please mind that following information is run as a reference. Applications for those positions have been closed.

    1. Objectives of FRSGC   
      Global changes, such as global warming and climatic anomalies, are serious problems which affect the ecosystem of nature and the future of human beings. The prediction and better understanding of these problems are pressing issues. FRSGC attempts to understand the complicated interactions among the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. Regarding the earth as one system, we develop an integrated model capable of more accurate simulation of global scale phenomena.

      To accomplish these objectives, we propose the following research assignments, and invite excellent foreign as well as Japanese research scientists for an intensive period of research. The research period is 20 years starting from 1997, (divided into two 10-year periods), and the results of the research will be evaluated by outside experts every 5 years.

    2. Role of FRSGC   
      FRSGC is a project conducted at the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC).
      The objective of this project is to elucidate the various processes contributing to global change through data analysis and model experiments. It is one of the three sister projects which includes observations of earth by satellite and ship (FORSGC), and the development of the “Earth Simulator”, which was completed in March 2002. FRSGC also works a channel to send research scientists to IPRC (International Pacific Research Center) and the IARC (International Arctic Research Center) which was established for the cooperation in global change research between Japan and the US under the Common Agenda. The research scientist of FRSGC work during the contract period under supervision of our distinguished leaders.

    3. Research Programs seeking applicants
      In the coming fiscal year, we invite applicants for six research programs (Climate Variations, Hydrological Cycle, Global Warming, Atmospheric Composition, Ecosystem Change and Integrated Modeling).
      In addition, under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)’s launched a new research initiative named “Project for Sustainable Coexistence of Human, Nature and the Earth” FRSGC has three subprojects ;
  • Global warming prediction by use of high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean models

  • Development of Integrated Earth System Models

  • Research Development of a New Four-Dimensional Variational (4D-VAR) Data Assimilation System Using an Adaptive Filter Approach and Assessment of the Products

  • The period of the project is FY 2002-FY 2006 (from April 2002 to March 2007).
    We also invite applicants for these subprojects of the “Project for Sustainable Coexistence of Human, Nature and the Earth”.

    (1) Climate Variations Research Program
    Climate Variations Research Program aims at understanding physical processes of various oceanic and atmospheric phenomena related to ocean climate variations in order to contribute to enhancing predictability skills mostly in the Asia-Pacific sector. Efforts will be particularly devoted to enhancing our level of understanding of ocean climate variations from seasons to decades. Among those phenomena are the Kuroshio variations, the climate regime shift in the northern North Pacific, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Both oceanic and atmospheric data will be intensively analyzed, together with simulations using models of varying degrees of freedom. This program is interested in interdisciplinary climate application studies based on the knowledge accumulated so far in the program in order to contribute to societal needs. It also promotes basic research on geophysical fluid dynamics related to ocean climate dynamics.

      Candidates should hold a Ph.D. (or equivalent) physical oceanography, meteorology, geophysical fluid dynamics and climate dynamics or in related fields in physics. It is highly desirable that s/he has experience in numerical modeling and/or statistical data analysis. Reasonable command of spoken and written English is required in this program to communicate on a daily basis with colleagues from various nations.

    1) For Ocean and/or Atmosphere Climate Modeling and Predictability Study
      Successful candidates will be involved as core members in using as well as improving ultra high-resolution ocean and/or atmospheric models for the Earth Simulator in order to study climate variations and/or climate predictability in the Indo-Pacific sector. He/she is also expected to participate actively in the EU-Japan bilateral collaboration for better climate prediction using those models.

    2) For developing J-COPE (Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment)
    A successful candidate will participate in predictability and application studies using an ultra high-resolution regional model nested in the Pacific basin-wide model in order to achieve successful experimental prediction of the Kuroshio variations influenced by basin-wide climate variations.

    (2) Hydrological Cycle Research Program
      Hydrological Cycle Research Program, which expertise in regional climate modeling, focuses its research activities on the Asian Monsoon in order to elucidate its mechanism on the water cycle and resources. We conduct researches to predict process and effects of phenomenal changes such as global warming on the mechanisms relevant to water resources, which are caused by the anthropogenic activities.

      In addition to existing meteorological, hydrological and land-use data, we will fully utilize intensively observed data obtained through international projects such as GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment program (GAME), as well as the data (to be) observed by the Frontier Observation Research System for Global Change (FORSGC), remote sensing data (TRMM, SSM/I, GMS etc.) and others.

      As for the modeling, we basically utilize GCMs and some regional models, such as RAMS, MM5 and ARPS. In addition, with the intention of developing models covering the points below, we are trying to elucidate mechanisms of changes in precipitation and the hydrological cycle (diurnal, seasonal, annual and interannual) in Asia. We are also trying to develop prediction methods for those mechanisms.

  • Meteorological / hydrological modeling with various horizontal scales from the continental to the cumulus-convection.

  • Modeling of various land surface processes, such as soil moisture, permafrost, snow, vegetation, change of land-use.

  • Modeling of evaporation and precipitation processes at the state of mixture of various land surfaces and complicated configuration of the ground.

  • Modeling of transport of stable water isotope and other material.

  • Diagnostic studies of global/continental-scale energy and hydrological cycle by using the global reanalysis data and satellite data (TRMM, SSM/I etc.).

  • Cooperation with the global climate model in the Integrated Modeling Research Program, FRSGC.

  • Improving land-atmosphere coupled models for prediction of hydrological cycle and developing next generation regional climate model.
  • Research Scientist who have expertise and sufficient background on the following fields are highly appreciated:

  • GCM modeling on global/continental-scale hydrological processes
    Diagnostic studies on global/continental-scale energy and hydrological processes using objective re-analysis data etc.

  • Modeling of land-atmosphere interactions in Asia/Eurasian continent by using regional climate models

  • Improvement of land-atmosphere coupled models for prediction of hydrological cycle and development of next generation regional climate model.

  • Organization and parameterization of mesoa-?scale cloud systems by using high-resolution cloud resolving models

  • Modeling (Cloud Resolving Model) and data analysis of precipitation/cloud – land surface interactions
  • (3) Global Warming Research Program
      This research program explores the physical, chemical and biological mechanism responsible for global warming and attempt to make quantitative projection of future climate change. It covers three research subjects, i. e., global warming, carbon cycle, and paleoclimate.

    1) Global Warming Research
      Using a hierarchy of climate models with various complexities and computational resolutions, the future changes of climate and the physical mechanisms, which are responsible for these changes are studied. For example, using general circulation model of the atmosphere with very high computational resolution, we will explore how those phenomena which are important for climate such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, are affected by global warming.

    2) Carbon Cycle Research
      Using a hierarchy of marine biogeochemical models with various complexities, the future changes of marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem will be investigated. Special emphasis of this project will be placed upon the elucidation of chemical, biological as well as physical processes that control the oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide.

    3) Paleoclimate Research
      Using a hierarchy of climate models with various complexities, the mechanisms which are responsible for past climate changes, in particular, the glacial–interglacial transition of climate are studied. For example, we will explore how the massive continental ice sheets were maintained during the last glacial maximum and why they have been reduced to the modern ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctic Continents. Based on this study we will also attempt to determine the future of these ice sheets.

      The major objective of this program is the predictive understanding of global climate. It seeks those candidates who are interested in modeling study of the research topics identified above. It is desirable that they have basic knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology and the ability to apply them to the study of climate. In particular, the program looks for those who are interested in developing climate models and using them for the study of climate.

    (4) Atmospheric Composition Research Program
      This program targets long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and short-lived atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, ozone and their precursors, that cause directly climate and air quality change. Future research direction focuses on improvement of precision of source/sink estimates of greenhouse gases by inverse modeling, etc., and interaction of climate and environment effect by aerosols, ozone, etc. Also, relating to the hemispherical air pollution of ozone and aerosols, trans-continental transport and chemical transformation processes, and atmospheric environmental effects of anthropogenic activities in East Asia will be focused.
    Further, analysis of satellite observational data of tropospheric chemical species coupled with modeling research, that has been almost untouched in Japan, will be promoted.

    In order to promote following type of studies, we call for scientists who have fundamental knowledge on atmospheric chemistry and have experience or interests in global, regional or urban three-dimensional modeling. We also call for scientists who are interested in utilization of satellite data of tropospheric chemical species.

    1) Global, regional and urban chemical-transport modeling research
    Candidates are expected to develop their research either on feedback processes between climate and air quality change, application of chemical weather forecast to photochemical oxidants, development of regional model with detailed aerosol processes.

    2) Atmospheric composition data analysis research
    Candidates are expected to study on air quality model validation, process of long-range trans-boundary air pollution, or analysis of sources and distribution of air pollutants using satellite data of SCIAMACHY, GOME, MOPITT etc.

    (5) Ecosystem Change Research Program
      The objective of this Research Program is to investigate the structures and the functions of terrestrial and marine ecosystems with respect to climatic and environmental changes on a global scale. In particular, it focuses on the observation of the spatial distributions of the biome-characteristic species, biomass, NPP, etc., and on the modeling of material flows and interactions within ecosystems and between the ecosystems, and the atmosphere in wide climatic zones in the Asian-Pacific region.

      We are facing the scientifically new problem of how the ecosystem responds to the rapid environmental changes such as CO2 increase or global warming, and at the moment we do not know how it can be predicted or assessed. The Framework Convention on the Climate Change aims to predict, assess and prevent the negative effect of climate change to the terrestrial ecosystem. However, the modeling of ecosystem structures and functions has been behind the atmosphere and ocean circulation modeling.

      The final goal of this research program is to develop models of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to simulate them. However, like other research programs, it starts from the collection and the integration of the basic data and knowledge in the relevant fields.

      Candidates having an interest in modeling of ecosystem structures and functions. In particular, candidates having an interest in modeling of interactions between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere, in modeling of ecosystem changes responding climate change, and in modeling and observation of spatial and temporal dynamics of ecosystem parameters.

    1) Ecosystem - Atmosphere interaction modeling group
      Candidates having an interest in modeling of matter flow in terrestrial ecosystem and in modeling ecosystem-atmosphere interaction, and having basic knowledge for their modeling and simulation.

    2) Ecosystem architecture modeling group
      Candidate having an interest in modeling of vegetation dynamics from single tree level to landscape ecology level, and having basic knowledge for mathematical ecology.

    3) Ecosystem geographical distribution modeling group
      Candidates having an interest in observation and modeling of ecosystem structures and functions, and having basic knowledge for remote sensing and GIS.

    4) Marine biological process modeling group
      Candidate having an interest in observation and modeling of marine ecosystems, and having knowledge for marine biological processes.

    (6) Integrated Modeling Research Program
      The mission of the Program is to develop "new” climate models, global environmental models and ocean data assimilation systems to be run on the world's fastest "Earth Simulator" which was completed in March 2002. The following are the present targets of development:

    1. Spectral atmosphere model with a horizontal resolution T213 and 50 layers in the vertical, world ocean model with 0.1 horizontal resolution and 50 layers in the vertical, and a coupled A-O GCM consisting of the two. An objective is to carry out long-term global warming experiments with eddy containing oceans.
    2. Atmosphere model with a horizontal mesh size of 5 km or less by which tropical cloud clusters and other meso-scale atmospheric systems can be represented explicitly. Similarly, eddy resolving world ocean model are being developed. As the coordinate system to cover the globe cubic-grid and incosahedral-grid (quasi-uniform grids) are adopted.
    3. Development of models to include new elements such as aerosols effects on clouds, or global carbon cycle, on the basis of currently existing climate models cooperating with other research programs.
    Development toward this “Integrated Earth System Model” starts from FY2002 as apart of the MEXT new project described in (7).

    Modeling experts now being sought are expected to be engaged in
    -Development of higher resolution atmosphere models on the basis of existing models by improving treatments of various physical processes, especially the atmospheric boundary layer and cumulus convection
    -Development of high-resolution world ocean circulation models
    -Development of non-hydrostatic atmosphere models
    Computer experts having experiences in climate models’ coding for parallel machines are also being sought.

      In addition to the above described model development, ocean data assimilation systems are also developed in this program. Four-dimensional variational data assimilation systems, which incorporate satellite and in-situ observational data into numerical models, are the subject of increasing interest. These can provide realistic initial conditions for adequate prediction and also useful re-analysis datasets for accurate estimation of ocean circulation processes. A variational data assimilation system using the adjoint method is the most promising approach in view of the fact that the spatio-temporal coverage of the present measurements for mass and velocity fields is far from complete. We have therefore constructed a global ocean data assimilation system and are now in the process of pursuing the following research subjects:
    1) Improvement of the global ocean data assimilation system by using the adjoint method and Kalman filter
    2) Research and development of high resolution data assimilation system utilizing satellite data and in situ data (TRITON/TAO, ARGO), together with development, processing and analysis of high-quality data set, which enable us to trace the time evolution of El Nino and other phenomena.

      We invite applications from specialists for the above work.

    (7) MEXT Project for sustainable coexistence of human, nature and the earth
      From FY2002, the following projects started under “MEXT Project for sustainable coexistence of human, nature and the earth”.
    «Global warming prediction by use of high-resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean models»
      This is a joint project with the Center for Climate System Research of the University of Tokyo and the National Institute for Environmental Studies to conduct global warming experiments following IPCC Scenarios on the future GHG increases. At present an atmosphere model of about 100km resolution which can represent smaller-scale weather systems such as tropical cyclones and Baiu-front and an ocean model with 1/4°×1/6°resolution which can represent meso-scale ocean eddies and complicated topography in the northern North Atlantic ocean where subsidence is taking place. By use of the coupled model consisting of the above two control experiments, global warming experiment and the 20th century climate simulation will be conducted.

      This project has a definite objective to contribute to the IPCC AR4. Strongly motivated Research Scientist having interest in development of models and also having experience or backgrounds to analyze results of numerical experiments are sought.

    «Development of Integrated Earth System Models»
    In recent years, with the increase of societal need for global warming prediction, projection of the future of the CO2 sequestration by land ecosystem under changed climate conditions is much concerned about and coupled carbon cycle-climate models are now being developed at some research centers.
    At FRSGC we have initiated a new research project to develop “integrated earth system model” in response to the AO of the MEXT project. The basic strategy of development is to couple component models already existing in respective research programs through collaboration of members of the new project with research scientist of existing programs and then improve the coupled model through investigation of dynamics of the coupled system to complete the model mostly by the new project members. We plan to carry out global warming experiment by developing coupled carbon cycle-climate models within 2~3 years. We also plan to include more components such as atmospheric chemistry, ecosystem dynamics and so on step by step.

      Junior research scientist including post docs to be engaged in the described project above are sought. Those who are interested in relevant research subjects (examples are listed below) with reasonable background are desirable. Research Scientist having experiences in earth system modeling are most welcome.
    ·Biogeochemical cycles in the ocean
    ·Material cycle and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem
    ·Interaction between aerosols and clouds

    «Research development of a new four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) data assimilation system using an adaptive filter approach and assessment of the products»

      In order to better describe the dynamic state of a climate system and contribute to improving predictability skills for seasonal variations, Data Assimilation Research Project aims at developing an adaptive filter and thereby constructing a new advanced 4D-VAR data assimilation system for climate variations. An adaptive filter method exploited here is a combination of the adjoint and the ensemble Kalman filter method with an aim at utilizing the advantages of both assimilation methods. The adaptive filter is planned to be incorporated into a dynamically coupled climate model that will be constructed and tuned up by a research group at the Earth Simulator Center (ESC). Firstly, data assimilation systems for each component model will be constructed using the adaptive filter approach, respectively, which are used to seek the optimal ensemble number and parameter values for seasonal variations. Secondly, these models will be integrated to make the comprehensive reanalysis dataset with dynamical consistency in the coupled system from a variety of observational data. Lastly, after a close examination of the effectiveness of the product in enhancing predictability and state estimation of seasonal variations, the new advanced data assimilation system is assessed and improved towards a better assimilation system.

      We are seeking candidates with experience in developing/improving a coupled GCM (including sea-ice and land-process modeling) or an advanced assimilation method. Applicants must hold a Ph.D in oceanography, meteorology, an optimal theory, or a related field by the starting date. Successful candidates are expected to combine an excellent knowledge of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena with exceptionally strong background in computer modeling. A successful candidate will be involved in handling, analyzing, and dynamically diagnosing in/output data of the data assimilation system. Appointment is for one year and annually renewable, depending on performance and availability of funds.

    4. Research resources and equipments
      A computer system with a multi-purpose server as well as a high performance server capable of vector calculations has been set up at FRSGC. In addition, a network system with access to super computers at Japan Marine Science and Technology Center has been constructed. All FRSGC research scientists are eligible for applying for using Earth Simulator.

    5. Qualification for application
      1) A person who has a Ph.D. in related fields or who is expected to complete the degree by the date of employment. We also welcome applicants who have the equivalent research experiences.

    2) Any nationality, any sex, and any age could be applied. FRSGC has the principle of equality of men and women as it relates to the recruitment of all staff. With a view to achieving a more equitable balance of men and women in all positions, we would like to particularly encourage qualified women to apply.

    6. Work place
    Frontier Research System for Global Change,
    3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku
    Yokohama 236-0001 Japan

    7. Status and Contract period
    (1) Period of employment is from April 1st 2004 to March 31 2005. Employment contract is renewable every fiscal year depending on the progress of research. Maximum of three years for the post doctoral research scientist and generally maximum of five years for others are expected.
    On the expiration, a postdoctoral scientist or a full-time research scientist, whose maximum duration of employment has expired, may be eligible for an additional five years of employment at FRSGC as a full-time research scientist if, 1) his/her accomplishment is highly evaluated throughout the entire period, or 2) the Director-General and Program Director agree that the research scientist is indispensable to the progress of FRSGC research.

    (2) A successful candidate will be employed as a contracted research scientist of either Japan Marine Science and Technology Center or National Space Development Agency of Japan, according to his / her research theme and the research role in the overall system.

    8. Treatment
    (1) Payment will be 4 million to 9 million yen per year for a full time position depending upon his / her academic career.
    (2) Traveling expenses will be provided according to regulations.
    (3) The participant and JAMSTEC will share the premiums for social insurance and labor insurance according to the current statutory proportion.
    (4) Subsidized housing is available through the JAMSTEC housing scheme. Eligibility for the housing scheme is subject to the JAMSTEC regulations.
    (5) A commutation allowance will be provided.
    (6) Holidays and vacations: Saturday, Sunday, public holidays, the year-end and the beginning of the year are holidays. There are annual vacations with pay, special vacations, leave of absence for care and maternity leave.
    (7) Other : There are various kinds of subsidy system for personal interests/welfare.

    9. Method of application
    (1) Required documents
    a. One copy of research proposal including the research program which you desire to participate in. (A4 size, 1 page)
    *Please write research program(s) which you will apply. If you apply more than one research programs, please submit one research proposal for each program.

    b. References (recommendations) written by two senior research scientists.
    The references should be sent directly from them to Frontier Research Promotion Office, Frontier Research System for Global Change (see 10.(3))
    Applicant’s name should be written on the envelope.

    c. One copy of a resume.

    d. One copy of publication list including thesis titles.
    Please separate those with referred journals from other publications.

    (2) Submission
    Required documents should be sent by mail before the deadline.

    (3) Address
    Frontier Research System for Global Change
    Frontier Research Promotion Department
    FRSGC in charge of Personnel Affairs
    3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku
    Yokohama 236-0001 Japan
    TEL: 81-45-778-5679
    FAX: 81-45-778-5497

    10. Closing date for application   
      August 31, 2003 (a postmark on the day is acceptable)

    11. Selection and employment
    1) Document evaluation and interview will be conducted.
    2) Interviews will be conducted in Japanese or English.

    12. Screening
    1) Incomplete applications may not be accepted.
    2) Submitted documents will not be returned to the applicant.
    3) A health certificate should be submitted when the employment is informally decided.
    4) A letter should be submitted if the applicant withdraws.

    13. Notes
    1) If you have further inquiries, please contact the Frontier Research Promotion Office (see 10 (3)).
    Related information is available on the following home page URL:
    http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frsgc/jp/ (FRSGC)
    http://www.jamstec.go.jp (JAMSTEC)
    2) There may be additional announcement of opportunities in the future.
    3) JAMSTEC will become Independent Administrative Institution from 1st April 2004.