|3.Research Programs and applicants required
|In the coming fiscal year, we invite applicants for six research programs (Climate Variations, Hydrological Cycle, Atmospheric Composition, Ecosystem Change Global Warming, and Global Environment Modeling).
In addition, under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)’s initiative named "Project for Sustainable Coexistence of Human, Nature and the Earth" FRCGC has three subprojects:
a)Development of Integrated Earth System Models
b)Research Development of a New Four-Dimensional Variational (4D-VAR) Data Assimilation System Using an Adaptive Filter Approach and Assessment of the Products
The period of the project is FY 2002-FY 2006 (from April 2002 to March 2007).
In the coming fiscal year, we also invite applicants for the subproject b).
(1)Climate Variations Research Program
Climate Variations Research Program aims at understanding physical processes of various oceanic and atmospheric phenomena related to ocean climate variations in order to contribute to enhancing predictability skills mostly in the Asia-Pacific sector. Efforts will be particularly devoted to enhancing our level of understanding of ocean climate variations from seasons to decades. Among those phenomena are the Kuroshio variations, the climate regime shift in the northern North Pacific, the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. Both oceanic and atmospheric data will be intensively analyzed, together with simulations using models of varying degrees of freedom. This program is interested in interdisciplinary climate application studies based on the knowledge accumulated so far in the program in order to contribute to societal needs. It also promotes basic research on geophysical fluid dynamics related to ocean climate dynamics.
Candidates should hold a Ph.D. (or equivalent) in such fields as physical oceanography, meteorology, geophysical fluid dynamics, climate dynamics or related fields in physics. It is highly desirable that s/he has experience in numerical modeling and/or statistical data analysis. Reasonable command of spoken and written English is required in this program to communicate on a daily basis with colleagues from various nations.
Successful candidates will be involved as core members in using as well as improving ultra high-resolution oceanic and/or atmospheric GCMs for the Earth Simulator in order to study ocean and climate variations and/or their predictability. He/she is also expected to participate actively in the international collaboration pursuing the improvement of climate/ocean prediction skill.
(2)Hydrological Cycle Research Program
Hydrological Cycle Research Program, which expertise in regional climate modeling, focuses its research activities on the Asian Monsoon in order to elucidate its mechanism on the water cycle and resources. We conduct researches to predict process and effects of phenomenal changes such as global warming on the mechanisms relevant to water resources, which are caused by the anthropogenic activities.
In addition to existing meteorological, hydrological and land-use data, we will fully utilize intensively observed data obtained through international projects such as GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment program (GAME), as well as the data (to be) observed by Frontier Observation Research System for Global Change (FORSGC), remote sensing data (TRMM, SSM/I, GMS etc.) and others.
As for the modeling, we basically utilize GCMs and some regional models, such as RAMS, MM5 and ARPS. In addition, with the intention of developing models covering the points below, we are trying to elucidate mechanisms of changes in precipitation and the hydrological cycle (diurnal, seasonal, annual and interannual) in Asia. We are also trying to develop prediction methods for those mechanisms.
- Meteorological / hydrological modeling with various horizontal scales from the continental to the cumulus-convection.
- Modeling of various land surface processes, such as soil moisture, permafrost, snow, vegetation, change of land-use.
- Modeling of evaporation and precipitation processes at the state of mixture of various land surfaces and complicated configuration of the ground.
- Modeling of transport of stable water isotope and other material.
- Diagnostic studies of global/continental-scale energy and hydrological cycle by using the global reanalysis data and satellite data (TRMM, SSM/I etc.).
- Cooperation with the global climate model in the Global Environment Modeling Research Program, FRCGC.
- Improving land-atmosphere coupled models for prediction of hydrological cycle and developing next generation regional climate model.
Research Scientist who has expertise and sufficient background on the following fields are highly appreciated:
- GCM modeling on global/continental-scale hydrological processes
- Diagnostic studies on global/continental-scale energy and hydrological processes using objective re-analysis data etc.
- Modeling of land-atmosphere interactions in Asia/Eurasian continent by using regional climate models.
- Improvement of land-atmosphere coupled models for prediction of hydrological cycle and development of next generation regional climate model.
- Organization and parameterization of mesoα-γscale cloud systems by using high-resolution cloud resolving models
- Modeling (Cloud Resolving Model) and data analysis of precipitation/cloud-land surface interactions
(3)Atmospheric Composition Research Program
This program targets the variability of long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, and short-lived atmospheric constituents such as aerosols, ozone and their precursors, that cause climate and air quality change directly or indirectly. Future research will be directed to an improvement of precision of source/sink estimates of greenhouse gases by higher resolution inverse modeling, chemistry-climate interaction by aerosols and ozone, inter- and intra-continental long-range transport and hemispherical air pollution by ozone and aerosols, and utilization of satellite observational data for tropospheric chemical species coupled with modeling, aiming at evaluation of climate and environmental impact of human activities in Asia. Further, integrating the observational research on atmospheric chemistry which has been conducted in FORSGC, intensive campaign and continuous measurements of aerosols, ozone and their precursors in China, Russia and Central Asia in addition to domestic sites will be performed in this program.
In order to promote following research, we call for scientists who have fundamental knowledge on atmospheric chemistry and have experience/interests either in global/regional scale chemical-transport modeling, analysis of observational data of greenhouse gases, or observational research on atmospheric chemistry. Particularly in this fiscal year, we call for scientists who will be engaged in the following studies.
1)Global/regional chemical-transport modeling research
Process studies related to climate and air quality change, and prediction of hemispherical ozone change using Earth Simulator, etc.
2)Source-sink modeling study of greenhouse gases
Inverse-modeling using a high resolution atmospheric transport model with Earth Simulator, and an analysis of isotope data of carbon dioxide.
3)Atmospheric chemistry observational research
Intensive campaign and continuous measurements of aerosols, ozone, HOx radicals and their precursors either in China, Russia and Central Asia in addition to domestic sites.
(4)Ecosystem Change Research Program
The objective of this Research Program is to investigate the structures and the functions of terrestrial and marine ecosystems with respect to climatic and environmental changes on a global scale. In particular, it focuses on the observation of the spatial distributions of the biome-characteristic species, biomass, NPP, etc., and on the modeling of material flows and interactions within ecosystems and between the ecosystems, and the atmosphere in wide climatic zones in the Asian-Pacific region and also modeling of material cycles in the oceans involving marine ecosystem.
We are facing the scientifically new problem of how the ecosystem responds to the rapid environmental changes such as CO2 increase or global warming, and at the moment we do not know how it can be predicted or assessed. The Framework Convention on the Climate Change aims to predict, assess and prevent the negative effect of climate change to the terrestrial ecosystem. However, the modeling of ecosystem structures and functions has been behind the atmosphere and ocean circulation modeling.
The final goal of this research program is to develop models of terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to simulate them. However, like other research programs, it starts from the collection and the integration of the basic data and knowledge in the relevant fields.
Candidates having an interest in modeling of ecosystem structures and functions.In particular, candidates having an interest in modeling of material cycles in the oceans involving marine ecosystem, modeling of interactions between terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere, in modeling of ecosystem changes responding climate change, and in modeling and observation of spatial and temporal dynamics of ecosystem parameters.
1)Ecosystem - Atmosphere interaction modeling group
Candidates having an interest in modeling of matter flow in terrestrial ecosystem and in modeling ecosystem-atmosphere interaction and modeling of vegetation dynamics from single tree level to global level, and having basic knowledge for their modeling and simulation.
2)Ecosystem geographical distribution modeling group
Candidates having an interest in observation and modeling of ecosystem structures and functions, and having basic knowledge for remote sensing and GIS.
3) Marine biological process modeling group
Candidate having an interest in observation and modeling of marine ecosystems, and having knowledge for marine biological processes, and candidate to be engaged in modeling of material cycles in the oceans involving marine ecosystem.
4)Individual researchers who are interested in ecosystem dynamics in general, from perspective viewpoint. Interests on item 1 to 3 are also required.
(5)Global Warming Research Program
This research program explores the physical and chemical mechanism responsible for global warming and attempt to make quantitative projection of future climate change. It covers three research subjects, i. e., global warming, coupled model development, and paleoclimate.
1)Global Warming Research
Using a hierarchy of climate models with various complexities and computational resolutions, the future changes of climate and the physical mechanisms, which are responsible for these changes are studied. For example, using general circulation model of the atmosphere with very high computational resolution, we will explore how those phenomena which are important for climate such as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones and El Nino-Southern Oscillation, are affected by global warming.
2)Coupled Model Development
Coupled atmosphere-ocean-land model is an extremely important tool used for studying the highly complex climate system. This program will conduct various numerical experiments using the existing coupled model running on the Earth Simulator. The results will be analyzed and compared with the observational data in order to improve understanding the mechanism of the climate and climate variability. Also, the performance of the model, especially its weaknesses will be evaluated in order to improve the model.
3) Paleoclimate Research
Using a hierarchy of climate models with various complexities, the mechanisms which are responsible for past climate changes, in particular, the glacial-interglacial transition of climate are studied. For example, we will explore how the massive continental ice sheets were maintained during the last glacial maximum and why they have been reduced to the modern ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctic Continents. Based on this study we will also attempt to determine the future of these ice sheets.
The major objective of this program is the predictive understanding of global climate. It seeks those candidates who are interested in modeling study of the research topics identified above. It is desirable that they have basic knowledge of mathematics, physics, and chemistry, and the ability to apply the to the study of climate. In particular, the program looks for those who are interested in developing climate models and using them for the study of climate.
(6)Global Environment Modeling Research Program
The mission of the Program is to develop "new" climate models, global environmental models and ocean data assimilation systems to be run on the world's fastest "Earth Simulator" which was completed in March 2002. The following are the present targets of development:
1. Atmosphere model with a horizontal mesh size of 5 km or less by which tropical cloud clusters and other meso-scale atmospheric systems can be represented explicitly. Similarly, eddy resolving world ocean model are being developed. As the coordinate system to cover the globe cubic-grid and incosahedral-grid (quasi-uniform grids) are adopted.
2. Development of models to include new elements such as aerosols effects on clouds, or global carbon cycle, on the basis of currently existing climate models cooperating with other research programs.
Development toward this "Integrated Earth System Model" starts from FY2002 as apart of the MEXT new project described in (7).
Modeling experts now being sought are expected to be engaged in
-Development of higher resolution atmosphere models on the basis of existing models by improving treatments of various physical processes, especially the atmospheric boundary layer and cumulus convection
-Development of high-resolution world ocean circulation models
-Development of non-hydrostatic atmosphere models
Computer experts having experiences in climate models’ coding for parallel machines are also being sought.
In addition to the above described model development, ocean data assimilation systems are also developed in this program. Four-dimensional variational data assimilation systems, which incorporate satellite and in-situ observational data into numerical models, are the subject of increasing interest. These can provide realistic initial conditions for adequate prediction and also useful re-analysis datasets for accurate estimation of ocean circulation processes. A variational data assimilation system using the adjoint method is the most promising approach in view of the fact that the spatio-temporal coverage of the present measurements for mass and velocity fields is far from complete. We have therefore constructed a global ocean data assimilation system and are now in the process of pursuing the following research subjects:
1) Improvement of the global ocean data assimilation system by using the adjoint method and Kalman filter
2) Research and development of high resolution data assimilation system utilizing satellite data and in situ data (TRITON/TAO, ARGO), together with development, processing and analysis of high-quality data set, which enable us to trace the time evolution of El Nino and other phenomena.
We invite applications from specialists for the above work.
(7)MEXT Project for sustainable coexistence of human, nature and the earth
From FY2002, three projects started under "MEXT Project for sustainable coexistence of human, nature and the earth". In the coming fiscal year, we invite applicants for the following project.
<<Development of Integrated Earth System Models>>
In recent years, with the increase of societal need for global warming prediction, projection of the future of the CO2 sequestration by land ecosystem under changed climate conditions is much concerned about and coupled carbon cycle-climate models are now being developed at some research centers.
At FRCGC we have initiated a new research project to develop "integrated earth system model" in response to the AO of the MEXT project. The basic strategy of development is to couple component models already existing in respective research programs through collaboration of members of the new project with research scientist of existing programs and then improve the coupled model through investigation of dynamics of the coupled system to complete the model mostly by the new project members. We plan to carry out global warming experiment by developing coupled carbon cycle-climate models within 1-2 years. We also plan to include more components such as atmospheric chemistry, ecosystem dynamics and so on step by step.
Junior research scientist including post docs to be engaged in the described project above are sought. Those who are interested in relevant research subjects (examples are listed below) with reasonable background are desirable. Research Scientist having experiences in earth system modelings are most welcome.
- Biogeochemical cycles in the ocean
- Material cycle and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystem
- nteraction between aerosols and clouds