Railway track on a
bridge beam to minimize
at the ground
Railway embankment to
release heat effectively.
|Introduction of the research of Dr. Kazuyuki Saito
Area underlain by seasonally or perennially frozen ground occupies more than half of the
northern hemisphere (NH) open (excl. glaciers and ice sheets) land surface. It is the largest
component of the terrestrial cryosphere under the current climate, larger than seasonal snow
cover, which covers up to 45% of the NH open surface.
Depth of freezing/thawing varies from place to place. However, weakened soil-freezing of the
upper several meters, through natural or anthropogenic disturbances, can already affect the local
hydroclimate, vegetation, and the socio-economic activities. Furthermore, the physical, chemical
and/or biological interactions and feedbacks may transfer the influences on regional to
hemispheric scales. Our group has been developing and improving the terrestrial scheme for
GCMs, that implements the essential processes so that we can gain better understandings of
the frozen-ground change and its large-scale, as well as local-scale, influences.
|High-latitude and/or high-altitude areas are more vulnerable. In August 2006, I attended the Asian Permafrost Conference in Lanzhou, China, and the subsequent field excursion to the Tibetan Plateau, with the Qinghai-Tibet Railway where the minimum altitude of permafrost has been lifting up in the receut years.
Photos : The Qinghai-Tibet Railway: Railway tracks have constructed after the results of various
kinds of research to minimize influences to permafrost under different land and climate conditions.
Fukutomi, who has been dispatched from our Program to IPRC in
Hawaii, introduces his research activities.
I joined the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC), School
of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), University
of Hawaii in October 2005 as a Frontier visiting assistant researcher.
||At Frontier since 2001, I have been
studying the causes of the interannual variations in the northern
Eurasian climate and hydrological cycle. At the IPRC, I am returning
to my monsoon research and working with Prof. Bin Wang on the
Asian-Australian Monsoon System Team. I had previously investigated
characteristics of low-level southerly surges on sub-monthly
timescales over the eastern Indian Ocean and topical-extratropical
interaction associated with the southerly surges. The surges
are caused by the development of a mid-latitude Rossby wave
that propagates in the Southern Hemisphere and involves cold,
dry air advection, tropical convection, and an equatorial wave
response. The surge has a significant impact on the atmosphere-ocean
system in the tropical Indian Ocean region. I am now extending
this work with 4-dimensional data assimilation and satellite
observational data products and studying dynamics of the cross-equatorial
influence of this transient southerly surge on the south Asian
monsoon region and the surge-induced air-sea interaction processes.
GAME (GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment; GEWEX is Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment), in which many membersof our HCRP have participated, was formally finished in March 2005. A new framework is being prepared in order to furtherpromote studies related to GEWEX in Asia partly based on the heritage of GAME. Though its name and details have not yet beendecided, its concept at an interim stage as discussed in an international workshop held on 28 August in Kyoto is as follows. Itsmain objective is to build capacity of hydro-meteorological prediction of the time scales up to seasonal through betterunderstanding of Asian monsoon. The impact of human activity, such as emission of aerosols and greenhouse gases and land-usechange, on the hydrological cycle is one of the key issues to be examined. The target area is the whole monsoon Asia, and it canalso be considered as four subregions: Tropical Asia (including not only Indochina Penisula which was the target area of GAME-Tropics but also Indonesian Maritime Continent and Indian Subcontinent), Tibet/Himalayas, East Asia, and Northeast Asia (includingMongolia). Studies of the hydrological cycle in Siberia will be promoted mainly in the context of another international researchprogram CliC (Climate and Cryosphere).
Introduction of Masayuki Hara, who joined our Program in July 2004.
Prior to coming to FRCGC as research assistant, I was a graduate student
of University of Tsukuba, and I studied mechanism of a cyclone that
causes much snow along the southern slope of the Himalaya using regional
|One of my particular interests is
diurnal cycle and spatial structure of convective activity over
the Monsoon Asia. I conduct some simulations over the Maritime
Continent and the Bay of Bengal using regional meteorological
model. The diurnal cycle of convective activity in the tropics
is one of the major energy sources for driving the circulation
of the atmosphere. Studying the mechanism of the diurnal cycle
is important to understand mechanism of various meteorological
processes the in Monsoon Asia.
Report of meetings by Dr. Kuba
I stayed at Humburg, Germany for 1 week from 11 July to attend
the International Cloud Modeling Workshop 2004. The main purpose
of this workshop was to verify models by using data from large-scale
observations. At Working Group Meetings, as well as at Plenary
Sessions, I was able to have a cooperation from the observation
team. After the workshop, I moved to Bologna, Italy to attend
the International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP2004).
The conference was very fulfilling because subjects discussed
during the term (1 week) were all related to Cloud Physics.
I have worked on determining initial cloud drop size distribution
of microphysical model with bin method using the parcel model
with particle method in Lagrangian framework form cloud condensation
nuclei. However, it is difficult to introduce a parcel model
and bin model together into a 3-D nonhydrostatic model. Thus
I developed parameterization for determining the initial cloud
drop size distribution to introduce at the conference. During
discussion among participants, I realized that many researchers
had the same problem, and felt sense of solidarity.
Report of a Symposium by Dr. Iwabuchi
I attended the International Radiation Symposium (IRS) 2004
held in Pusan, South Korea for 1 week from 23 August. In this
largest international symposium related to Atmospheric Radiation,
recent issues in this field were discussed thoroughly. The
most impressive presentation was about the study on the regional
distribution of radiation balance that is changed by introducing
the sub-grid-scale effect of cloud radiation into a global
atmospheric circulation. This effect of cloud radiation may
also affect other distributions such as precipitation. I then
felt the need of introducing this effect into climate models
in Japan. Meanwhile, I presented the study on 3-D radiation
transfer in atmosphere that includes cloud. Thanks to getting
valuable comments from many researchers, I was able to spend
fulfilling time in this conference.
The Clouds and Precipitation Process Group conducts joint
Artificial Cloud Experiments with other research institutions every
year, utilizing the Kamaishi mine shaft (approximately 450 meters
in depth), to demonstrate indirect effects of aerosol. This year,
we conducted the experiments at the end of November. Changing ascending
velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei, we were
able to validate the detailed cloud physics models and parameterizations
developed by our group. Dr. Chuang, University of California, Santa
Cruz, came to join this experiment. He is interested in the effect
of turbulence on the cloud droplet size distributions. After this
year's experiments, we invited him to give a lecture, entitled "Studies
of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions" at the Formal Seminar
held at the Frontier Research Center for Global Change.
Land surface processes takes an important role in energy and water
exchange at lower boundary of the atmosphere, and is one of the essential
components in climate modeling. A land surface model, Minimal Advanced
Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff (MATSIRO), was developed
for climate studies including the necessary processes as simple as
possible (Takata, Emori and Watanabe, 2003). In MATSIRO, energy and
water balances are calculated at the vegetation and ground surfaces.
Since the balances largely vary with and without snow cover, they
are calculated separately in snow-covered and snow-free portions.
The rate of snow coverage at sub-grid scale is estimated from snow
amount. Snow cover reflectivity significantly affects the energy balance,
thus it is estimated considering time since last snowfall and snow
temperature. Transpiration of vegetation is calculated using a simple
photosynthesis model. Soil has multiple layers so that it can represent
frozen ground. A runoff model that considers simplified sub-grid topography
is implemented. Sub-leader Dr. Takata and her coauthors have validated
MATSIRO using the observation data in Tundra region, and examined
the sensitivity of major parameters for heat, water and CO2
fluxes. Dr. Motoya and his coauthors have examined the model's global
water balance using a global atmospheric data set, and studied the
effect of precipitation gauge correction. We expect these researches
will deepen our understanding of the land surface processes and their
role on the hydrological cycle.
We would like to introduce a business trip report by Dr. Xieyao Ma.
From April 6 to 11, I participated in the European Geophysical Society (EGS)-American Geophysical Union (AGU)-European Union of Geosciences (EUG) Joint Assembly held in Nice, France. It was the first time for these three societies to jointly organize a conference. It was also the first time for me to attend a conference organized by any of these societies. On the opening day, the number of researchers attending the conference exceeded sponsors' expectations, which lead to some confusion. The sessions conducted in the large venue ran simultaneously, which kept me busy every day. Fortunately, since each session proceeded as scheduled, I was able to listen to various presentations that interested me, including the great floods in Europe over recent years, changes in the amount of water resources in each region associated with climate changes, and progress in hydrological modeling on land surface. I myself made a poster presentation of hydrological analytical results in a semi-arid region of Mongolia and enjoyed lively discussions with a number of researchers. As a result, I spent quite a meaningful time during the six days of the conference. I am looking forward to applying the research trends shared at this Joint Assembly to my own studies.
|Report of the fall meeting of American Geophysical Union (AGU) by Rikie Suzuki |
I have participated in the fall meeting of AGU held in San Francisco from 6 to 10 December 2002. When I checked the news in Japan from the free wireless LAN in the corner of the hall, it seemed that they had a heavy snow in Kanto Area, which was unusual for this season. I then appreciated the fact that I was at San Francisco, which has relatively warm winter by locating in the Mediterranean climate. The photo is the hall for the poster session, in which free beers were provided. The huge hall was divided into specific scientific fields. It was very impressive for me that apart from traditional specialized fields, there were noticeable amount of new studies, cross-cutting among the different areas. Presenters stood in front of each poster, and active discussions were held all over the hall. My main interest was the condition of the global vegetation. Various challenging researches based on the vegetation distribution data obtained from earth observation satellite, etc, have been carried out, and I was able to obtain useful information for our newest research trend.
Yasunari, Kimura, Fujiyoshi, Masuda, and Oki participated the meeting
on the GAME International Scientific Panel held on 6-7 November
in Tokyo. It has been decided to organize a meeting on regional
climate modeling related to Monsoon, and to collect and share of
5-year climate data from 1997-2001 to discuss the annual variation.
From 29-30 October, Yasunari, Masuda, and Oki joined the Workshop
on GAME-Tropics (Chiang Rai, Thailand). Topics emphasized include
science basis for water resource prediction, and capacity building
of researchers in Asia.
From 30 September to 1 October, Oki and Motoya participated in the
Kick-off Workshop on Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP). Many discussions
were made on the model inter-comparison by the land surface process
simulation using the common input dataset, and the strategy for
a longer-term simulation in the next phase of GSWP. At the International
Conference on mesoscale convective systems and heavy rainfall/snowfall
in East Asia held on 29-31 October in Tokyo, Nakamura presented
simulation results on mesoscale disturbances observed in the Meiyu
our Program Director Yasunari, and Sub Group Leader of Cloud
and Precipitation group, Yamasaki received 2002 Fujiwara Award
of Meteorological Society of Japan, IGCR Formal Seminar by the
two recipients, titled "Role of GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment
(GAME) in the Climate and Hydrological Studies in Asia" and
"Study of Tropical Cyclones and Tropical Disturbances - Understanding
of CISK and the Mesoscale with Two Types of Numerical Models"
respectively, was held at JAMSTEC's Yokohama Institute of Earth
Science on 28 July 2002.
Researcher of Cloud and Precipitation Group, Kuba participated
in the Conference of American Meteorological Society, 11th Joint
Meeting of Cloud Physics and Atmospheric radiation, held at
Ogden, Uta, United States. She made a presentation on the effects
of aerosols (as cloud condensation nuclei) on the precipitation
efficiency. In addition, she proposed new parameterizations
to predict number concentration of cloud droplets and to evaluate
the optical properties of clouds, and also proposed a method
to retrieve CCN spectrum at the 5th APEX International Workshop
held in Miyazaki, Japan from 3-5 July.
In the Spring Conference on Japan Meteorological Society held in 22-24
May at Omiya, Japan, presenters from our program were; Program Director
Dr. Yasunari, Group Leaders Drs. Kimura and Fujiyoshi, as well as
Drs. Yamasaki, Takata, Suzuki, Endo, Ju, Fukutomi, Yoshikane, and
Dr. Ma of Land Surface Processes and Land Atmosphere Interaction Group
joined the Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting 2002 held at New Zealand
in July, and presented his research on dry and semiarid areas in Mongolia.
In the Cloud and Precipitation Group, Group Leader Dr. Fujiyoshi participated
in the Workshop on Japan-China Precipitation System Observational
Research held in Hainan Province, China from 23-26 April and presented
the research result on the model comparison experiment on meso-disturbance
developed over the Baiu Front. Dr. Nakamura joined the workshop on
GEWEX Cloud System Studies (GCSS) in Kananaskis and presented the
result of the analysis and numerical simulation of some disturbances
observed during WMO-01.
In April, Dr. Iwabuchi joined the Cloud and Precipitation Group. He
is conducting his research, both from Observation and model perspectives,
regarding the effects of three- dimensional radiative transmission
on radiative characteristics of the clouds.
Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asia Monsoon Experiment
(GAME) Domestic Meeting was held at Kyoto University Hall from 8-9
January. Program Director, Dr. Yasunari, Group Leaders Drs. Kimura
and Fujiyoshi, and our researchers, Drs. Tsuboki, Oki, Masuda, Takata,
Yamazaki, Tanaka, and Ma joined the meeting and presented our research
In the meeting, we introduced our researches: Seasonal cycle of water
balance components in major river basins, intercomparison of hydrological
land model, PILPS2(e), role of ocean land distribution and mountain
for the effect of water cycle on land in Asian region in summer, etc.
In particular, Dr. Fujiyoshi presented result of model comparative
experiment of cloud cluster developed over the Baiu front (2nd July,
1998), and discussed the problems.
As GAME Phase I has been carried out focusing on intensive observation
of each region, in the GAME Phase II, the research will be focused
on intensive thinking by elucidation of observed data and modeling.
Structure of the working group will planned to be process base, such
as land surface processes, cloud and precipitation, monsoon system
study, water and energy balance, etc, instead of region bases.
In the 5th International GAME (GEWEX Asia Monsoon Experiment) Conference,
held in Nagoya, Japan, in early October, nine researchers including
Program Director Dr. Yasunari, Drs. Takata, Suzuki, Endo, Tanaka,
Kishtawal, Fukutomi, Tomita, and Yamazaki presented our researches.
These include; time space characteristics of atmospheric water balance
in monsoon Asia, temporal variation of precipitable water in Yakutsk,
eastern Siberia, surface energy/water balance in the tundra region
and so forth.
Soon after the GAME conference, Drs.Yamasaki, Takata, Yamazaki, Kuba,
Nakamura, Tomita, Xu, Yoshikane, total of eight researchers participated
in fall meeting of Meteorological Society of Japan, and presented
their research results. They are; a study of cloud clusters associated
with a Baiu front, snow models intercomparison project, cloud simulation
using a detailed cloud microphysical model, result of the simulation
of cloud system development associated with an extratropical cyclone,
interannual variation of the meridional distribution of the Baiu front
and so forth.
The cloud and precipitation process group has been conducting numerical
experiments of the cloud cluster involved Baiu Front during the special
observation period of GAME/HUBEX (Huaihe River Basin Experiment).
The results were presented by Group Leader Dr. Fujiyoshi at the HUBEX
Workshop held in Kunming, China in December.
Program Director Dr.Yasunari, and five of our researchers,Drs. Masuda,
Tomita, Yamazaki, Kuba, and Maruyama participated in the 8th Scientific
Assembly of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric
The presentations included discussions on the results of initial analyses
from an international comparison of snow cover models, an introduction
to newly developed microphysical models for cloud simulation, an introduction
to results from models that simulate the aggregation process in snowflake
growth, and the results of data analysis concerning the Asian Monsoon
circulation. The group was able to gain valuable insights from the
conference for future research.
In early September, the 4th International Scientific Conference on
the Global Energy and Water Cycle (GEWEX) was held in Paris. Dr. Yasunari,
Vice-Chair of the GEWEX Scientific Steering Group (SSG), together
with Drs. Masuda, Suzuki, and Fukutomi participated in the conference.
The conference is expected to stimulate research on predicting hydrological
cycles concerning seasonal change and interannual variability in the
atmosphere-land water budget, along with the role of vegetation.
Dr.Kishtawal has been using data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring
Mission (TRMM) thereby advancing analysis of the distribution of the
height of rain tops over the sea, with respect to sea surface temperature
and monsoon circulation. Dr.Sung-Dae Kang from the Meteorological
Research Institute of Korea Meteorological Administration joined us