Dr.Takashi Nishimura, who joined our program in January
2001 is happy to introduce his research field, a subalpine
forest in Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan.
There grows very many sakhalin spruce (Picea glehnii
Masters) and sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis Masters) in
the subalpine forest in Shiretoko, Hokkaido, Japan. P.
glehnii grow relatively slower but live three times longer than
A. sachalinensis. However, if all conditions in the forest stay
the same, A. sachalinensis grow a lot more than P. glehnii.
In winter, it snows a lot and strong prevailing winds blow, so
some of the trees fall, but the damage is different between
these two kinds of tree. P. glehnii are hard and strong, while
A. sachalinensis of small diameter are vulnerable and fall
down very easily. Because of the snow and wind thinning
trees of A. sachalinensis, P. glehnii can stay in the forest.
The mechanisms to maintain forests are very sensitive.
Amount of snowfall and strength of wind vary drastically
every year, but these days, there frequently occurs abnormal
weather. Since the trees live very long, there will be no
instant effect for abnormal weather, but we might see completely
different forests in the future.
In the Next-Generation Model Research Group, develop-ment
of a shallow-water model using an icosahedral grid
and a conformal cubic grid, and a non-hydrostatic model
meeting the conservation of mass and energy has been
almost completed. Following on from these two models, we
have shifted our development scheme to a global three-dimensional
non-hydrostatic model. Based on the program's
non-hydrostatic model, we are studying the physical process
to be utilized for the next-generation model.
Drs. Sato and Tomita participated in the 2001 Workshop
on Partial Differential Equations over the Spherical Surface
(PDE 2001) held in Montreal, Canada in July, and presented
their research results on the numerical calculation method of
the next generation model. In September, Drs. Sato, Tomita,
and Nasuno participated in the Fourth International
Workshop on Short Range Numerical Weather Prediction
(SRNWP 2001) held in Bad Orp, Germany and gave their
presentation on the current hydrostatic model.
In the Coupled-Model Development Group, sea ice has
been integrated into the group's ocean model. The group is
also progressing with the coupling of the atmosphere model
and ocean model, in cooperation with the Earth Simulator
In the Data Assimilation Research Group, data assimilation
using ARGO data has been carried out in co-operation
with Frontier Observation System for Global Change
(FORSGC). While most ocean observation data are taken
from the sea surface, this ARGO data is able to obtain the
sea temperature and salinity throughout the upper 2000m. It
is thus expected to help elucidate the detailed structure of
the global ocean circulation.
The IPRC held its First Regional Climate Modeling
Workshop at the East-West Center from October 10 to 12.
Regional climate modelers came from China, Japan, and
the US to identify problems in regional climate modeling
and to guide future regional climate model development
and application. An impetus for this workshop was that
Yuqing Wang and Omer Sen at the IPRC have been able
to realistically simulate the onset and four months of the
1998 Asian monsoon.
Moreover, several IPRC scientists (Xiouhua Fu,
Johannes Loschnigg, Tim Li, Bing Wang, Yongsheng
Zhang) are working on simulating monsoon climatology
over various regions of Asia. They show that air-sea interaction
plays a role in enhancing the northward propagation
of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation over the
Indian Ocean, which impacts the monsoon simulation by
connecting two convective bands, the monsoon trough and
the equatorial Indian Ocean convective zone.
On November 6, the IPRC received important visitors
from the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center:
Dr. Hiroshi Ohba, Chairman; Mr. Masato Chijiya, Executive
Director; and Mr. Seiichi Nishimura, Staff Supervisor. The
group toured the IPRC facilities and met with Frontier
Researchers and Shang-Ping Xie, Associate Professor at
the University of Hawaii.
In IARC's Multi-Disciplinary Research Group, in order to
evaluate effect of the biogeochemical processes on climate
system in the Arctic, various observations have been conducted
at ocean, permafrost, and glacier this year. Among
them, we would like to introduce observation of the surface
albedo and microbial activity on glaciers by Dr. Takeuchi,
whose research activity has recently been introduced in the
Fairbanks' local newspaper.
|2001.9.4 At Gulkana Glacier in the Alaska Range,
sampling of surface ice (Photo taken by Ned Rozell)
On the surface of snow and ice, there are unique living
microbes adapted to low temperature environment. The purpose
of this observation is to verify the new idea, that propagation
of these particular microbes decreases the albedo of
snow-ice surface, and control melting of glacier, sea ice, and
seasonal snow cover, then quantify its effect. From May to
September, he conducted the observation of albedo and
sampling of the snow and ice on Alaskan glaciers and sea
ice in the Arctic Ocean.
As a result of this observation, it was
found out that also in Alaskan glaciers, microbial activity
reduces the surface albedo. In order to quantify the effect, he
is proceeding with the analysis of the snow and ice samples.