In this Newsletter, we introduce, in a successive manner, the global change research institutes and their research activities in the world. For the fif
th time, Mr. Soichi Mori, Deputy Director, Frontier Research Promotion Department, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, introduces the present s
tate of the earth science in Europe.|
Interview at the Ministry of National Education,Research,
and Technology, France|
* Mori (right):
"What is the priority research of the 21st century in solid earth
* Prof.Courtillot,a former special counselor to the Minister of
National Education,Research, and Technology,France (left):
"The verification of the long-term global dynamics by clarifying
the interactions between the solid sphere and the fluid sphere."
Bubble and Euro
In spite of global warming, it still seems to snow hard at times. Brussels Airport was, in fact, covered in a mantle of snow. It was De
cember 7th, 1998.
In a series of interviews with European Earth scientists, I visited Directorate Generals XI and XII of the European Commission at Bruss
els. Europe, today, is being unified rapidly in political, economic, and social aspects. Science and technology are no exception.
Each European country is now taking more account of working at the European level, and its R &D have become interdependent. Even at the
Kyoto Conference of 1997 (COP-3), a historical event for the diplomacy of the global environment, European countries acted in concert.
They brought up the concept of an "EU Bubble", which signifies the EU as a unit of nation, and made an international promise to reduce
the emission of greenhouse gases by 8 percent from the 1990 level. At the interview, I asked how the target will be achieved under the
initiative of the EC.
The EC's fundamental policy on science and technology is specified under "The Framework Programme of the European Community for Researc
h, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities." Just three weeks before my visit, the European Parliament and the EC Counci
l reached an agreement on the Fifth Framework Programme. Through calls for proposals, the specific work programs will be determined and
implemented between 1999 and 2002.A total of about 15 billion euro, or 18 billion U.S. dollars, will be invested in the Programme.
To respond to the major socio-economic challenges of today's Europe, the Fifth Framework Programme has set the four problem-solving The
matic Programmes:" quality of life and management of living resources," "user-friendly information society," "competitive and sustainab
le growth, "and "energy, environment and sustainable development." As an example, the key actions of the fourth Thematic Programme incl
ude "Sustainable management and quality of water," "Global change, climate and biodiversity, "and "Sustainable marine ecosystems. "The
support for research infrastructures has, for the first time, been identified as one of the three Horizontal Programmes, which underpin
and complement the Thematic Programmes. Its objectives are to promote the utilization of large facilities and excellent centers, to li
nk relevant facilities by network, and to develop telematics networks for research, in order to make the best use of research facilitie
s and thus enhance the unity of research structure in Europe.
Such targeted investment by the EC is inseparably related to the multidisciplinary evaluation of research plans. In addition to annual
reviews, the final evaluation of the Framework Programme will be conducted by the Advisory Groups of different disciplines.
Research proposals on climate change will also be assessed from the aspects of socio-economic and natural sciences. "The influence of c
limate change in each region is a serious concern of tax payers in Europe, who support the EC programs," commented a unit head of Direc
torate General XII. Why is it necessary to initiate a research program at the European level, rather than at the national level? This i
s, of course, an essential criterion in assessing the program.
Immediately after the series of interviews, EU's common currency, the EURO, appeared in the world money market.
Soichi Mori, Deputy Director
Frontier Research Promotion Department
Japan Marine Science and Technology Center
(Translated by Tamaki Hino, assistant interviewer)
Interview at Utrecht University,the Netherlands|
* Mori (right):
"The Netherlands is aggressive against global warming?"
* Prof.Turkenburg,Utrecht University (left):
"Advanced countries should conduct long-term R &D even
targeting 80 percent reduction of CO2 by the end of the 21st