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X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF)

   When a sample is irradiated with X-rays, its constituent atoms become excited, and emit secondary X-rays with wavelengths specific to elements (characteristic X-rays). The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer identifies the sample’s constituent elements (qualitative analysis) by measuring the wavelengths of these characteristic X-rays and determines the concentrations of those elements (quantitative analysis) by measures their intensities.

X-ray Diffractometer (XRD)

   When X-rays hit a powdery sample during irradiation, they get diffracted by mineral crystals contained in it, and strong scattering is observed at certain incident angles to crystals, which are specific to individual minerals. Using this phenomenon, the X-ray diffractometer identifies minerals contained in samples and examines their atomic arrangements.

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM)

   The field emission scanning electron microscope enables the clear observation of the minute surface irregularity of solid samples beyond the reach of an optical microscope by scanning the surface with narrow electron beams after rendering it electrically conductive through the deposition of metal or carbon and by detecting and measuring the intensity of reflected electrons and secondary electrons.

Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA)

   When the surface of a sample is irradiated with an electron beam, it emits X-rays specific to individual elements (characteristic X-rays). By measuring the intensities of characteristic X-rays, the electron probe microanalyzer analyzes the elemental composition of the sample, a microscopic area of the order of 10µm at a time. It can show the two-dimensional variation of elemental composition across the sample surface by scanning it with an election beam.

Laser Raman Spectrometer

   When a sample is irradiated with narrowly-focused monochromatic light (laser), the scattering of weak light with a wavelength different from the incident light (Raman scattered light) is observed. Based on the fact that the wavelength of Raman scattered light reflects the molecular structure of the sample, the laser Raman spectrometer determines the molecular structure of a microscopic area of the sample and identifies minerals.