Forest Light Environmental Simulator (FLiES)

Version 2: now available !

Hideki Kobayashi (hkoba at
Frontier Research Center for Global Change
All right researved

The FLiES (Forest Light Environmental Simulator) is designed to calculate forest light environmental parameters such as reflectance, absorbed light, transmitted light in the 3D heterogeneous landscape.


FLiES Softwares

Ancillary datasets


  1. Kobayashi, H. and H. Iwabuchi (2008), A coupled 1-D atmosphere and 3-D canopy radiative transfer model for canopy reflectance, light environment, and photosynthesis simulation in a heterogeneous landscape, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 173-185.
  2. Kobayashi, H, R. Suzuki, S. Kobayashi (2007), Reflectance seasonality and its relation to the canopy leaf area index in an eastern Siberian larch forest: Multi-satellite data and radiative transfer analyes, Remote Sensing of Environment, 106, 238-252.
  3. Iwabuchi H. and H. Kobayashi, (2006), Modeling of radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres and plant canopies using Monte Carlo methods, JAMSTEC Frontier Technical Report Vol 7., p.236.


  • Simulated reflectance images

    These tree true-colored images are produced by 450nm (blue), 550nm (green), and 650nm (red) reflectance images. Tree canopies are modeled as a cone shape. Left (snow covered forets floor with leafless canopy), Center (just foliating canopy in spring), Right (summertime foliated canopy)

    Near infrared image.Canopy is assumed as a ellipsoidal shape.

  • BRF simulation

  • 3D Absorbed PAR & vertical LAI/FPAR distributions